MK ULTRA PROJECT : Secret US Human Biological Experimentation

1931  Dr. Cornelius
Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical
Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to
establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and
Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he
begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and
civilian hospital patients.

1932  The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men
diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment,
and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression
and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their
families never told that they could have been treated.

1935  The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals
die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service
finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had
known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but
failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken black

1940  Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with
Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat
the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study
to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

1942  Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas
experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until
1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea
pigs rather than serve on active duty.

1943  In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare
program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.

1944 U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing.
Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and

1945  Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State
Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer
them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret
government projects in the United States.

1945  “Program F” is implemented by the U.S.
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the
health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb
production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is
found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of
the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear
that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.

1946  Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for
medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change
the word “experiments” to “investigations” or “observations”
whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s

1947  Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy
Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating
that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive
substances to human subjects.

1947  The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon
for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military)
are used with and without their knowledge.

1950  Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear
weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and
mortality rates.

1950 I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an American
city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria
from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the
city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with
pneumonia-like symptoms.

1951  Department of Defense begins open air tests using
disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is
concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

1953  U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide
gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River
Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how
efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.

1953  Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which
tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the
airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

1953  CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year
research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that
would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the
subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

1955  The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to
infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn
from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.

1955  Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying
its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans
participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

1956  U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow
Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents
posing as public health officials test victims for effects.

1958  LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical
Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

1960  The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence
(ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of
the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the
Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

1965  Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project
MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior
through the use of mind-altering drugs.

1965  Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in
Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of
Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of
cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all

1966  CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the
toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.

1966  U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger
throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are
exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto
ventilation grates.

1967  CIA and Department of Defense implement Project
MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test
biological and chemical weapons.

1968  CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning
drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in
Washington, D.C.

1969  Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense
requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a
synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.

1970  Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained
under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out
by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army’s top secret
biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology
techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.

1970  United States intensifies its development of
“ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to
selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due
to genetic differences and variations in DNA.

1975  The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for
Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities
and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is
here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy,
purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that
retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named
HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).

1977  Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research
confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents
between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington,
D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

1978  Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by
the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research
subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1981  First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in
New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have
been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine

1985  According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV
and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic
and evolutionary relationship.

1986  According to the Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all
structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to
HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce
a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.

1986  A report to Congress reveals that the U.S.
Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified
viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic
engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all
existing vaccines.

1987  Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty
banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate
research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.

1990  More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies
in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that had
never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents
were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was

1994  With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr.
Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that
many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of
Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological
weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV
protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.

1994  Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing
that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of
thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional
exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas,
ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the
Gulf War .

1995  U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese
war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments
salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological
warfare research.

1995  Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the
biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX
and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of

1996  Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm
soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.

1997  Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter
demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.